Production[ edit ] Inwhile reading Sanjoy Hazarika's book Bhopal: Lessons of a Tragedy, Ravi Kumar got the idea of making a film based on the Bhopal disaster. In January the film's shooting was wrapped up.
Oil palms are originally from Western Africa, but can flourish wherever heat and rainfall are abundant. The industry is linked to major issues such as deforestation, habitat degradation, climate change, animal cruelty and indigenous rights abuses in the countries where it is produced, as the land and forests must be cleared for the development of the oil palm plantations.
According to the World Wildlife Fund, an area the equivalent size of football fields of rainforest is cleared each hour to make way for palm oil production. This large-scale deforestation is pushing many species to extinction, and findings show that if nothing changes species like the orangutan could become extinct in the wild within the next years, and Sumatran tigers less than 3 years.
Palm oil can be present in a wide variety of products, including baked goods, confectionery, shampoo, cosmetics, cleaning agents, washing detergents and toothpaste. Demand for palm oil has increased rapidly in recent decades. This boom in popularity can be attributed to a number of key qualities of the vegetable oil, namely its high efficiency, producing up to 10 times the amount of oil per hectare in comparison with other vegetable oil crops such as canola and soybean.
Due to this high yield and the fact oil palms thrive in high-rainfall tropical climates, Malaysia chose to begin producing palm oil in the early 20th century followed by Indonesia some 60 years later.
Palm oil soon became a desirable choice for manufacturers, as it was made widely available, had a cheap price tag due to low production costs in South-East Asia and is diverse in its uses. In the years that followed, the impacts of palm oil production soon became apparent to the rest of the world and the oil became a highly controversial topic.
Malaysia and Indonesia, now the two highest palm oil producing countries, continue to rapidly replace If it doesn t rain in hindi abundant rainforests with oil palm plantations. Though still eaten in Western Africa as an important part of basic food staple dishes, palm oil is used in a highly reformed form by most of the rest of the world and traded in an immeasurable amount of product ingredients.
The majority of palm oil produced is primarily used by Asian countries, but the demand in Western Nations has boomed in recent decades. Today, palm oil can be found in anything from cookies and ice-cream to shampoo and air freshener, and the average Western citizen consumes over 10kg of palm oil annually.
A major problem is that most consumers are uninformed as to which products contain palm oil that is causing severe environmental and social implications. This is partly due to lack of regulations around the mandatory labeling of palm oil in many countries, leading to palm oil being labeled under more than different names.
Politicians, organisations and members of the public have fought hard in countries such as Australia to implement laws on the labeling of palm oil, but have been unsuccessful. Currently, a third of all mammal species in Indonesia are considered to be critically endangered as a consequence of this unsustainable development that is rapidly encroaching on their habitat.
One animal of particular importance according to conservationists is the orangutan, which has become a charismatic icon for deforestation in Borneo and Sumatra. An estimated orangutans are killed each year for this development. The orangutan is a keystone species and plays a vital role in maintaining the health of the ecosystem.
An example of this being the spread of rainforest seeds in Indonesia, many of which can only germinate once passed through the gut of an orangutan, hence this primate is essential for the existence of the forest.
But the orangutan is not the only species affected by palm oil development; their situation represents the story of thousands of other species facing the same fate in South-East Asia. Deforestation for palm oil production also contributes significantly to climate change.
The removal of the native forests often involves the burning of invaluable timber and remaining forest undergrowth, emitting immense quantities of smoke into the atmosphere and making Indonesia the third highest greenhouse gas emitter in the world.
CLIMATE Pollution caused by the burning of secondary forests across Borneo and Sumatra increases the quantity of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, subsequently helping to excel climate change.
Trees and plants filter such gas and release oxygen intern through a process called photosynthesis. The removal of the forests themselves in these regions is therefore also a key factor contributing to the increase in atmospheric pollution, as less carbon dioxide is being removed from the air due to diminishing forests.
LAND In addition to its impacts on the climate, conventional palm oil development causes severe damage to the landscape of Borneo and Sumatra and has been linked to issues such as land erosion and the pollution of rivers.
The root systems of rainforest trees help to stabilise the soil and therefore if the forests are cleared, land erosion after rainfall can become a common occurrence.
More information will be added to this section soon. In addition, palm oil development increases accessibility of animals to poachers and wildlife smugglers who capture and sell wildlife as pets, use them for medicinal purposes or kill them for their body parts.
The destruction of rainforests in Borneo and Sumatra is therefore not only a conservation emergency, but a major animal welfare crisis as well. Wildlife such as orangutans have been found buried alive, killed from machete attacks, guns and other weaponry.
Government data has shown that over 50, orangutans have already died as a result of deforestation due to palm oil in the last two decades.
This either occurs during the deforestation process, or after the animal enters a village or existing palm oil plantation in search of food. Road networks that are constructed to allow palm oil plantation workers and equipment access to the forest also increase accessibility of these areas to poachers that are looking for these kinds of valuable animals.
This allows poachers to comfortably drive to an area to sit and wait for their target where previously they may have had to trek through inaccessible areas of forest. These clever primates are said to have the same intellect as a 5-toyear old child, with the ability to undo bolts, pick locks and learn sign language.
Despite this high level of intelligence and similarity to humans, an estimated 6 - 12 orangutans are killed each day across Borneo and Sumatra, often in severely brutal ways.
Orangutans are killed during deforestation, when trees are felled or as a result of being crushed by logging machinery. Orangutans that wander into existing palm oil plantations in search of food are considered to be agricultural pest, as they have the ability to damage oil palm crops.
To address this issue, owners of the plantations often place a bounty on the head of the orangutan - rewarding anyone who successfully disposes of the animal.Look up Don, don, or DON in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.: Don, don or DON and variants may refer to.
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Palm oil is a type of edible vegetable oil that is derived from the palm fruit, grown on the African oil palm tree. Oil palms are originally from Western Africa, but can .
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