Open in a separate window Endophytic fungi have been classified into two broad groups discriminated based on phylogeny and life history traits as clavicipitaceous C which infect some grasses and the nonclavicipitaceous endophytes NC-endophyteswhich can be recovered from asymptomatic tissues of nonvascular plants, ferns and allies, conifers, and angiosperms [ 28 ]. NC-endophytes represent three distinct functional classes based on host colonization and transmission, in planta biodiversity and fitness benefits conferred to hosts while the C group has just one class. Conventionally, identification of endophytes was done based on morphological characteristics for bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes and with the help of biochemical tests for bacteria and actinomycetes.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Endophytes are microorganisms bacteria or fungi or actinomycetes that dwell within robust plant tissues by having a symbiotic association.
They are ubiquitously associated with almost all plants studied till date. Some commonly found endophytes are those belonging to the genera Enterobacter sp. Endophytic population is greatly affected by climatic conditions and location where the host plant grows.
They produce a wide range of compounds useful for plants for their growth, protection to environmental conditions, and sustainability, in favour of a good dwelling place within the hosts. They protect plants from herbivory by producing certain compounds which will prevent animals from further grazing on the same plant and sometimes act as biocontrol agents.
A large amount of bioactive compounds produced by them not only are useful for plants but also are of economical importance to humans.
They serve as antibiotics, drugs or medicines, or the compounds of high relevance in research or as compounds useful to food industry. They are also found to have some important role in nutrient cycling, biodegradation, and bioremediation.
In this review, we have tried to comprehend different roles of endophytes in plants and their significance and impacts on man and environment.
They are ubiquitous, colonize in all plants, and have been isolated from almost all plants examined till date. Their association can be obligate or facultative and causes no harm to the host plants. They exhibit complex interactions with their hosts which involves mutualism and antagonism [ 2 — 11 ].
Plants strictly limit the growth of endophytes, and these endophytes use many mechanisms to gradually adapt to their living environments [ 12 ]. In order to maintain stable symbiosis, endophytes produce several compounds that promote growth of plants and help them adapt better to the environment [ 1314 ].
Improvement of endophyte resources could bring us a variety of benefits, such as novel and effective bioactive compounds that cannot be synthesized by chemical reactions. For this, there should be a better understanding about endophytes, their significance and roles.
Understanding the biology of plants and their microbial ecology becomes important. As evidenced by more number of publications on endophytes in recent years, many studies have been performed for evaluating their colonization pattern of vegetative tissues as well as their effects on plant growth.
These publications indirectly suggest their importance to the hosts and to the environment. This review aims to provide an overview about endophytes, their role and importance in plants and subsequently to the environment and human beings with reference to recent developments in endophytic research.
Isolation and Identification Endophytic organisms have been isolated from different parts of plant.
They were isolated from scale primordia, meristem and resin ducts [ 1516 ], leaf segments with midrib and roots [ 17 ] and from stem, bark, leaf blade, petiole [ 18 ], and buds [ 19 ].
Sequence-based approach was used for investigating the transmission of diverse fungal endophytes in seed and needles of Pinus monticola, western white pine [ 20 ].
They isolated fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized needles. In contrast, only 16 endophytic isolates were obtained from surface-sterilized seeds.
Several researchers have reviewed extensively different methods of the isolation of bacterial endophytes [ 2122 ]. Endophytes are isolated by initial surface sterilization followed by culturing from ground tissue extract [ 23 ] or by direct culturing of plant tissues [ 18 ] on media suitable for bacteria or fungi or actinomycetes.
The impact of different culture media on isolation of endophytic fungal flora from root and fruits of Azadirachta indica A. Juss was studied by Verma et al.Similarly, in a different study, recombinant endophytic bacteria Enterobacter cloacae expressing PtA gene proved to be a bioinsecticide against white backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera.
Use of recombinant endophytes as biocontrol agents expressing different antipest proteins becomes a promising technique for control of plant pests as these endophytes can easily colonize within different crop plants . Pandanus – Pandanus is a genus of monocots with some accepted species.
They are palm-like, dioecious trees and shrubs native to the Old World tropics and subtropics, common names include pandan, screw palm, and screw pine. species, Chenopodiaceaewith 10 species, Brassicaceae It creates life form endangered for some species. with 9 species, Euphorbiaceae with 8 species, Similarly the most valuable and medicinal flora of .
An excellent plant for poor, salty or sandy soils in hot and windy areas.
Both a xeric and salt-tolerant tree, hala is a great to stabilize sandy soil along coatsal and beach front properties where salt spray may kill most other plants.
Hala or Pandanus are members of the Screw pine family (Pandanaceae). There are two indigenous family representatives.
The other, ʻieʻie (Freycinetia arborea), is commonly seen in mesic or wet forests ascending trees or sprawling over rocks or on the ground. Different kinds of bullying essay; What would be the impact of; Importance of critical thinking and problem solving skills; Master thesis schreiben lassen kostenlose.